Allegations of Deception (Taqiyyah)

Introduction

It is alleged that the Quran supports a concept known as Taqqiyah or deception, where by a Muslim may conceal the true nature of his or her beliefs by outwardly declaring something contrary. They would supposedly do this until more favorable conditions allow them to pursue their true agenda. For example, given the current atmosphere of Islamophobia, a Muslim may allegedly declare that Islam teaches tolerance of non-Muslims and social freedoms but deceivingly plots otherwise.
 
It is first important to cover the early history of Islam and how the doctrine of Taqqiyah developed particularly among one sect of Muslims: Shias. Shia-Muslims account for approximately 20% of all Muslims.
 
The primary difference between Shias and non-Shias is that the former believe that Ali (Holy Prophet Muhammad’s younger cousin) was the rightful heir to the leadership of the Muslim community. Hence, they do not recognize the leadership (or Caliphate) of Abu Bakar, Umar and Uthman who preceded Ali. This belief poses a problem because it is difficult to explain why Ali himself accepted the leadership of the first three Caliphs and, in fact, took bay’ah (pledge of allegiance) at their hands.
 
The Shia clergy claims that Ali was performing Taqiyyah—meaning that he was hiding his true beliefs to protect himself. To support their argument, Shias point to verse 40:29 of the Quran where a man from the people of Pharaoh secretly believed in Moses’s teachings but concealed it for fear of crossing Pharaoh.
 
Non-Shia Muslims believe that while there may have been disagreement over succession to Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace), the situation posed no grave risk to Ali. He reconciled with the outcome of succession and served honorably under the first three Caliphs before himself being elected the fourth Caliph. Thus, there was no need for him to conceal his beliefs. On the other hand, concealing one’s belief in a situation of grave danger at the hands of a cruel and murderous tyrant like Pharaoh (who opposed Moses) is understandable and not viewed as a moral wrong.
 
Moreover, these accounts and verses are taken out of context by anti-Islam activists and apologists to paint all Muslims as having the belief that deception is justified for the purpose of spreading Islam.
 
The Qur’an champions honesty and integrity, and unequivocally condemns deception and lying as is evident from the verses below under the section: Fundamental Teachings of Islam.
 

3:55 - Allah practices deception

“And they planned, and Allah also planned; and Allah is the Best of planners.” (3:55)

Replacing ‘planned’ with ‘deceived’, detractors frequently allege this as the basis for Taqqiyah or deception in Islam by implying that Allah or God deceived the Jews by making someone else appear as Jesus who became the crucified individual. This verse does not state nor imply anything of the sort.

16:107 - Fake a conversion, while staying Muslim at heart

“Whoso disbelieves in Allah after he has believed – save him who is forced thereto while his heart finds peace in the faith – but such as open their breasts to disbelief, on them is Allah’s wrath; and they shall have a severe punishment.” (16:107)

It is alleged that this verse promotes Taqqiyah, or deception, by permitting a Muslim to conceal their true beliefs to further the cause of Islam. Just a plain reading of the verse suggests nothing of the sort.

40:29 - Conceal your true faith

“And a believing man from among the people of Pharaoh, who concealed his faith, said, Will you slay a man because he says, ‘My Lord is Allah,’ while he has brought you clear proofs from your Lord? And if he be a liar, on him will be the sin of his lie; but if he is truthful, then some of that which he threatens you with will surely befall you. Certainly Allah guides not one who is a transgressor, and a liar.” (40:29)

This verse gives the example of a believer in the court of Pharaoh who concealed his true faith, however it is historically well understood that Pharaoh was brutally intolerant of other faiths.

Fundamental Teachings of Islam

The following verses of the Quran clearly command the faithful to be honest, straight in speech and to befriend the truthful. Naturally, a religion that advocates these teachings cannot supports any form of deception. A concealment of faith is only reasonable and acceptable in a remote situation of grave risk such as the example in verse 40:29 of a man who had concealed his belief in Moses as a prophet of Allah for fear of Pharaoh (Moses’s mortal enemy).

And confound not truth with falsehood nor hide the truth, knowingly. (2:43)

But they who repent and amend and openly declare the truth, it is these to whom I turn with forgiveness, and I am Oft-Returning with compassion and Merciful. (2:161)

O ye who believe! Be strict in observing justice, and be witnesses for Allah, even though it be against yourselves or against parents and kindred. Whether he be rich or poor, Allah is more regardful of them both than you are. Therefore follow not low desires so that you may be able to act equitably. And if you conceal the truth or evade it, then remember that Allah is well aware of what you do. (4:136)

O ye who believe! fear Allah, and say the right word. He will bless your works for you and forgive you your sins. And whoso obeys Allah and His Messenger, shall surely attain a mighty success. (33:71-72)

O ye who believe! fear Allah and be with the truthful. (9:119)

The steadfast, and the truthful, and the humble, and those who spend in the way of God, and those who seek forgiveness in the latter part of the night. (3:18)

That Allah may reward the truthful for their truth, and punish the hypocrites if He so please, or turn to them in mercy. Verily Allah is Most Forgiving, Merciful. (33:25)

That He might establish the truth and bring to naught that which is false, although the guilty might dislike it. (8:9)

According to the Quran, prophets are the perfect examples for their followers; they were all truthful. For a religion and doctrine that places such profound emphasis on honesty and truth, it is an irreconcilable contradiction that it would in any way advocate a doctrine of deception.

And it is not possible for a Prophet to act dishonestly. (3:162)

And relate the story of Abraham as mentioned in the Book. He was a truthful man and a Prophet. (19:42)

And of the people of Moses there is a party that exhorts people to truth and does justice therewith. (7:160)

The Muslims were severely persecuted in Mecca for thirteen years for propagating Islam before migrating to Medina. This period saw the martyrdom of several Muslims at times for nothing more than refusing to denounce the fundamental belief and slogan of Islam: “There are no Gods but Allah and Muhammad is His Messenger”. The Quran praises martyrs who are slain in the way of Allah (3:158). Sumayyah bint Khayyat, a woman, is known as the first martyr of Islam. She was tortured to death for refusing to denounce Islam.

Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace) himself was so rigid in his standards of truthfulness that he was known among his people as “The Trusty” and “The Truthful”. He was equally anxious that Muslims should adopt the same standards of truthfulness. When Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace) first gathered the people of Mecca to announce his religious mission he addressed them by saying, “If I was to tell you that there is an army behind that hill about to attack this town, would you believe me?” The people replied. “Yes, for we know you are a truthful and honest man and you would never lie”. Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace) then announced, “Then, I tell you that there is only One God, and I am His Messenger”.

A well-known Hadith (sayings and events of the life of Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace)) speaks of a man who once came to Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace) and said: “O Messengers of Allah! I suffer from three evils: falsehood, indulgence in strong drinks and fornication. I have tried my utmost to get rid of them but have not succeeded. Will you tell me what to do?” The Prophet replied: “If you make a firm promise to me to give up one of them I guarantee that you will be rid of the other two”. The man promised to do so. The Holy Prophet Muhammad (on whom be peace) said: “Give up falsehood.”